The work is reported against each Work Package, as follows :

  ct fletcher quotes WP1 Project Management and Co-ordination

 Project Coordination Committees have been held at 6 month intervals, with individual Work Package meetings at more regular intervals – either as specific meetings or teleconferences.

A project web-site has been established, at the beginning of 2010, with a public section and a members section, the latter being used for administrative and technical documentation.

 The overall work plan has been established, with an individual break down into Work Packages showing their work timing, interactions with other Work Packages and schedule of Deliverables and Milestones.

 The Consortium Agreement has been agreed.

A distribution chart has been prepared for the 280 cells to be manufactured showing the 4 cell types, the tests to be performed on each and the partners involved.

buy 100 instagram followers for WP2  Ageing Analysis and Interpretation of Results

The bibliographical review of cell ageing mechanisms has been completed and the report issued. A publication of the bibliographical review is in progress.

The methods to be employed for the analysis of aged cells and the interpretation of the results has continued, the work has included the internal examination (post-mortem analysis) of new and aged cells from current manufacture. The tools, processes and measurements to be employed are now being finalised and the documentation will be prepared in time for the availability of the first aged cells from the test programme.

  ct fletcher age WP3  Specification of Cells and Test Procedures.

 A cell specification has been completed and issued, it covers all of the four different cell and APU-HEV applications.

A performance, ageing and cycling test specification has been completed and issued, it defines all of the tests to be carried out and the performance checks to be made during testing.

Finally, a specification of safety tests has been prepared detailing the mechanical, electrical and thermal abuse conditions to be applied.

  buy facebook likes per country WP4  Cell Manufacture

Manufacturing has been carried out in the following stages :

  • Selection of materials and their suppliers,
  • Build of small sample cells (4/5 A),
  • Analysis and material tests on small cells to provide information towards large cell manufacture,
  • Safety tests on small cells are running. The results are providing the information to support the manufacture of large cells
  • Manufacture and delivery of large cells (40-41 Ah)to test institutes.

The above actions have now been completed, large cell manufacture and supply has started.

chris evans height WP5  Cell Characterisation Test 

 This covers all of the cell test activity being carried out at the partners’ test facilities, with the exception of safety tests.

The tests involve cycle life and storage life, with the test cycles based on representative drive cycles and the storage tests at elevated temperatures (45 and 60°C) defined in the WP3 activities. At all times the conditions imposed will follow those determined by the cell manufacturer.

The allocation and distribution schedule of cells and modules between the partners has been specified, together with the test plans for each.

A round robin test has been launched for Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

The test programme has now started.

  reliable website to buy instagram followers WP6  Safety Test

 The work has started with a bibliographical study of thermal ‘runaway’ mechanisms in lithium battery systems, the report has been completed and issued.

The mechanical, electrical and thermal abuse test specification from WP3 has been employed to define a schedule of test activity, test institutes to be engaged and facilities to be assembled.

The test work will commence as cells and modules become available in the second half of the project plan.

  WP7  Economical Assessment


This work will assess the price sensitivity of the different cell chemistries and extend this up to a total battery system level, including the implications of safety and recycling.

A process to define the collection, determination and analysis of cost information has been prepared and the work to assemble the information has started. A request for Information will be sent to the main suppliers. Costs will be presented against three levels of assumed annual manufacturing volumes to represent the potential build-up of the vehicle market.

 WP8  Recycling Feasibility

A study of the potentially most appropriate processes is under way, involving a range of techniques from the least costly but yielding the lowest quantity of recycled material up to the most expensive process (cell de-activation + mechanical separation+ agglomeration before pyro-metallurgical or hydro-metallurgical treatment), yielding the most usable material. The study will continue in the second half of the project plan at cell and pack level. + Life Cycle Analysis


The project is scheduled to provide a complete evaluation of the four principal lithium-ion cell technologies and their application into full vehicle sized battery systems, with the results having been obtained under complete like-for-like test conditions and methods of analysis. The evaluation will provide a full suite of data covering simulated operational performance (cycle life and shelf life), safety/abuse performance, recycling and commercial potential.

 The potential impact will provide the following with sufficient knowledge to make well informed investment and resource deployment decisions for the future :

  • vehicle OEM’s
  • cell, battery and control/instrumentation/safety equipment developers and manufacturers 
  • research organisations and test institutes

In addition, should any newer cell/battery technologies arise during the course of the project or subsequently, the techniques developed here will provide a ‘blueprint’ for similar evaluation processes.

‘High Energy cell target specification for EV, PHEV and HEV-APU applications’

     Issue date : November 2011

 Main Author:              Horst Mettlach (Opel)

 Main contributors:     Frédérique del Corso (Renault), Armin Warm(FORD), Denis Porcellato(PSA), Michele Gosso(CRF), Hanna Bryngelsson(Volvo),


This deliverable has defined a set of battery specifications derived from system level parameters of EV, PHEV and HEV-APU applications.

 Because of project budget and timescale limitations it was necessary to manufacture and test only one cell type for each of the four cell chemistries and therefore to arrive at just one cell specification. The application for PHEV and HEV-APU was chosen over EV as being most relevant to the industry.

 The target specification isused to build full size cells with the different cell chemistries under consideration in the HELIOS project. The target cell specification has included the energy and power requirements as well as cycle and calendar life.

D3_1_PUBLIC (pdf file)


 ‘Review Thermal Runaway Reactions mechanisms’

Issue date : January 2011

 Main Author:              Ghislain Binotto (INERIS)

Contributors: Sylvie Genies (CEA-INES), Mathieu Morcrette (LRCS)


The safety of operation is a key point to allow the wide use of Lithium-ion batteries.

This document gives an ongoing state of the research about the mechanisms of the electrolyte’s degradation of LiPF6 and thermal decomposition of the different cell chemistries involved in the project : LiFePO4/C systems and Cobalt-based/C systems with positive material such asLi(NiCoAl)2O4 and the mixed oxide LiMn2O4‑Li(NiCoAl)2O4.


General objectives

The main objective of this task is to make a review on the chemical runaway mechanism with respect to the different electrode materials involved in this project and integrated into the batteries for finally reporting their behavior under abuse test conditions in term of safety.

 Introduction & methodology

Today, several types of positive active material have been developed and each of them has not exactly the same performances in terms of specific energy, cycling life time and safety.

In order to extend the use of the Li-ion batteries from portable electronic devices to hybrid electric vehicles markets, the safety concern becomes one of the most important/essential issues, a general challenge, for the high power and large scale Li-ion cell development especially under abuse conditions.

Several exothermic reactions can occur inside the cell as its temperature increases very quickly and is the reason that thermal stability is a key point for cell safety. When a lithium-ion battery is fully charged, the positive electrode contains a strong oxidizing transition metal oxide (i.e. LiMO2, M = Ni, Co, Mn), while the negative electrode contains lithiated carbon, a very strong reducing material. The non aqueous electrolyte usually constituted of an organic carbonate solvent and a lithium salt tends to be readily oxidized and reduced. Thus, the Li‑ion cell itself is thermodynamically unstable and the compatibility of the cell is achieved with the presence of the passivation films on the electrode surface. Therefore, Li-ion batteries are very sensitive to thermal, mechanical and electrical abuse and pose significant fire hazards and possible explosion.

We focus this study on the chemical runaway mechanism occurring under abuse tests conditions already pre-defined in the project: thermal stability, nail penetration, overcharge, overdischarge, short circuit, ARC experiments…

 D6 1_public_vf

Deliverable 3.2 : ‘Initial Cycling & Calendar Ageing Test Procedures   and checkup tests for High Energy Li-Ion battery cells’

 Revision : october 2012

 Main Author: Horst Mettlach (Opel)

Contributors:    Frédérique Delcorso (RENAULT), Michele Gosso (CRF), Armin Warm (FORD), Denis Porcellato (PSA),Hanna Bryngelsson (VOLVO), Christian Sarrazin (EDF),Mario Conte (ENEA), Ghislain Binotto (INERIS), Harry Doering (ZSW)


This document provides the full details of the cycle test and calendar life test procedures to be undertaken on the cells under examination throughout the project.

The cells are built from four different chemistries, NCA/graphite, NMC/graphite, LFP/graphite, Mn-spinel blend/graphite and have all been prepared to the same specification. Although this specification is aimed at the Plug-in HEV vehicle application, the test procedures have been arranged for testing under both Electric Vehicle and Plug-in HEV conditions.

SOC Range

EV application

PHEV application


100 %






In addition to the test procedures themselves, also provided are the details of pre-test checks with cell conditioning and the 3 different performance checks to be carried out at appropriate intervals during testing.

Quick characterization test

Short characterization test

Full characterization test

Week 2

week 6

Month 0

Week 4

week 12

Month 5-6


Week  18

Month 10-12



Month 15-18

D3_2(PUBLIC)_v2(pdf file)

Abuse Test Procedures for High Energy Li-Ion battery cells


 Issue date : November 2011

 Main Author:              Horst Mettlach (Opel)


Main Contributors:    Frédérique Delcorso (RENAULT), Armin Warm (FORD), Hanna Bryngelsson (VOLVO), Ghislain Binotto & Simeon Boyanov (INERIS)


This document provides the full details of the abuse test procedures to be undertaken on the cells under examination throughout the project. The procedures involve tests for three types of abuse conditions: mechanical, thermal and electrical.

The cells are built from four different chemistries, NCA/graphite, NMC/graphite, LFP/graphite, Mn-spinel oxide/graphite and have all been prepared to the same specification.

In addition to the test procedures themselves, also provided are the details of the general test conditions.


Deliverable 3_3.pdf

Review on ageing mechanisms for the different active materials


Issue date : November 2011

 Main Author: P. Kubiak (ZSW Zentrum für Sonnenenergie und Wasserstoff Forschung, Ulm)

Contributors:  M. Morcrette (LRCS, Université Picardie), K. Edström (Universityof Uppsala), Ph. Biensan & C Gousset (Saft), D. Porcellato (PSA Peugeot Citroën), C. Sarrazin (EDF)


This literature review has assessed over 200 references and has analysed the potential ageing failure mechanisms for the 4 battery type combinations, namely: NCA/graphite, NMC/graphite, LFP/graphite, Mn-spinel oxide/graphite.

The review includes the data for these complete systems taking into account the operating conditions:

  • Cycled capacity (mA h g-1)
  • Cycling conditions
  • Discharge rates
  • SOC storage conditions
  • Temperature
  • Upper voltage
  • Lower voltage

The 4 principal components of each cell type have been studied, these are the anode (graphite), positive electrode, electrolyte and metallic current collectors.

In the case of the anode, the data study has covered the interface layer with the electrolyte and examined the ageing effects with cycling and storage conditions, the effects of high and low temperature and high charge and discharge rates.

For the positive electrode, each of the 4 battery type combinations have been studies in detail concentrating on the known ageing processes of :

  • Structural changes during cycling.
  • Chemical decomposition/dissolution reaction.
  • Surface modification.

It makes the point that, in contrast to the anode graphite material, degradation of positive active material depends on state of charge (SOC) and cycling conditions.

The electrolyte ageing effects are discussed in outline, but this is an area with little existing literature and so will be studied in more detail during the rest of the project.

Finally the ageing effects of the metallic current collectors are discussed, concentrating on the recognized implications of metallic corrosion.



PCC meeting in Verneuil-en-Halatte (INERIS) – July 2012

2nd technical REPORT




The expected final results of the project are summarised as follows :-

1. A detailed comparison of the four main lithium-ion vehicle traction battery technologies in current manufacture or development. The comparisons have been achieved from laboratory testing and other analysis of full sized battery cells to determine their :

  • electrical performance
  • cycle life and storage life
  • safety under accident or abuse conditions
  • volume cost
  • capability for recycling of materials

2. In order to carry out the above testing and analysis work it was necessary to develop procedures for each phase. These documents will be available for future use of similar activity, they are :

  • Cell specifications applicable to both electric and hybrid electric vehicles
  • Performance, cycle and ageing test procedures, with links to other existing procedures available world-wide
  • Safety test procedures for performance under electrical/thermal/mechanical accident or abuse
  • Procedures for producing cost estimates of volume manufacture
  • Procedures for handling of used cells and recovery of materials.

 The potential impact and use is expected to be highly significant. The comparisons cover all of the attributes necessary to support the automotive industry, other research organisations and legislative/funding bodies in their decision making for future electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The socio-economic impact will arise from the guidance the project results will provide in the choice of future battery cell technologies and the way in which cells and batteries can be efficiently and economically employed in use by vehicle owners. In addition the organisations responsible for support to the automotive industry will have a clear view of the most efficient way to direct research and to produce legislation.

 The wider societal implications are therefore that the electric and hybrid electric vehicles of the future will be developed from a stronger knowledge base, this will involve both the vehicle OEM’s and the supply industry. In this way much of the uncertainty surrounding the adoption of this new technology will be alleviated giving decision makers a clearer view of the potentially most effective investments in research, development and manufacture. The end result will therefore be a more certain advancement into such vehicles with their ability to assist in longer term benefits for the environment, fuel security and European Union employment.



 The work is reported against each Work Package, as follows :

 WP1 Project Management and Co-ordination

 The achievement of the principal project objectives associated cell performance and safety testing fell behind their timing schedules because of the earlier delays incurred in the procurement and manufacture of large (40Ah) cells. This situation led to the decision to request an extension to the project end date from 31st.  October 2012 to 31st. October 2013 and has been approved.

The principal areas of work are now concentrating on the completion of the three Work Packages (5 for performance and 6 for safety) that control the cell/module test phases and Work Package 2 that performs post-mortem analysis. This is now well advanced, details of results achieved so far are given in the individual WP statements below, and the revised timing schedule is now set for all testing to complete by May of next year. This will leave the remaining time for assembly of results, including WP2 Ageing Analysis.

For the other Work Packages – WP3, 4, 7 and 8 – they are either already complete or have some final actions / report updating to finish. All of this will also be finished by April of next year.

The final stage of the project will therefore involve the final assessments of all results and preparation of reports.

WP2  Ageing Analysis and Interpretation of Results

The main objective of WP2 is the post-mortem analysis of the 40 Ah cells produced by SAFT. The first WP2 objective was focused on a full bibliographic review on ageing mechanism (which was submitted to a scientific journal) and, also, to set up the different ageing protocols which will be undertaken in the different partner labs. According to the high number of cells to analyze, a high flow of samples was organized. The cells coming from testing institutes were delivered to SAFT for disassembling the electrodes to be provided to WP2 partners. Because of the delay in manufacturing the 40 Ah cells, the characterisation is also delayed. Nevertheless, the organisation of electrode distribution was well performed.

The initial characterization of the materials was completed whereas the characterisation of the intermediate electrodes at 45°C and 60°C, as function of chemistry and ageing protocols, is still in progress. This meant a huge amount of work and also remarkable time consuming. Moreover, we must highlight the difficulties in handling some aged electrodes because of the bad adhesion of the active material (after cycling) on the current collector. 

WP3  Specification of Cells and Test Procedures.

The Performance and Aging Test Procedures (D3.2) were already submitted in the previous period and the public version of the test procedures was streamlined on Helios web site(

As an additional task, a general revision of the test procedures was compiled. Main focus was on better readability e.g. by adding overview diagrams and more precisely description of boundary conditions. Also, the test procedures were adjusted to the needs of the HELIOS project e.g. adjustment of interval for full checkup and post –mortem analysis.

Although, the HELIOS cycle life profiles are based on well-established USABC and ISO standards, it was the question how they correlate to real world driving. In the amendment to D3.2, CRF have simulated the battery power profile for HEV / PHEV / EV vehicles based on two driving cycles.

For the battery pack the assumptions from the battery system specification as described in D3.1 of the HELIOSproject was applied.

As a next step it is planned to compare the HELIOS test cycles with the real life cycle profiles based on the computer simulation.

It may be possible to calculate a rough estimation of the vehicle mileage based on the number of cycles achieved during the testing in WP5 according to the HELIOS cycle profiles.

WP4  Cell Manufacture

During the period 1, various active materials were investigated and qualified for their electrochemical properties. In a pre-study the behavior of the materials was investigated by the use of small cells with approx. 0.5 Ah. These cells were tested mainly for their safety and aging properties.

In the reported period the two remaining batches of full scale cells (LMO and LFP) and the 2nd batch of NMC cells were manufactured and shipped to the project partners for being used for the individual test programs. Around 60 cells per chemistry were delivered to WP5-6 and 8 partners. 


WP5  Cell Characterisation Test

Concerning the results obtained, cycling tests for the reference chemistry (NCA) and two of the alternative chemistries (NMC & LMO blend) were started in 2011 and most of these cells have now reached more than one thousand EV-cycles and close to two thousand PHEV-cycles. The cycling of LFP cells has started at the beginning of 2012. Concerning calendar storage, the first three chemistries have reached about twelve months calendar storage while LFP cells have now reached about six months storage

After initial characterizations, cycling and calendar tests were started and the rough number of cycles reached so far, depending on the chemistry and the cycling conditions is basically above 1,000 cycles for EV tests and close to 2,000 cycles for PHEV tests, whereas about one year storage has been reached for the calendar evaluation of NCA, NMC and LMO blend technologies.


T 30°C

T 45°C

T 60°C













LMO blend




















LMO blend














11.5 months

11.5 months



11.5 months

11.5 months

LMO blend


11.5 months

11.5 months



5 months

5 months

 Summary of the position in cycling and storage for EV, PHEV cycling and calendar life tests, for the Li-ion cells manufactured by SAFT and to be tested within the Helios project – WP5.


WP6  Safety Test

The main objective of the WP6 task consists in the evaluation of high energy cells in abuse conditions. The safety tests will be performed on 40 Ah batteries produced by SAFT in 4 versions of different chemistries. The safety of operation is a key point to allow lithium-ion batteries technology to be widely used for electric vehicles. According to the several types of positive active material dealing in the HELIOS project, each of them has not exactly the same performances in terms of specific energy, cycling life time and safety.

The HELIOS WP6 objectives are thus dedicated to establish a review on the chemical runaway mechanisms under abuse conditions (in term of safety) to perform the tests and to evaluate these various types of lithium-ion batteries toward electric vehicle applications based on the definition of safety tests procedures provides by WP3, and by using a standard experimental protocol.

The measurement of the reactivity and of the thermal evolution of different positive electrode materials, from the determination of kinetic parameters and approximate enthalpy reactionshave given really different results depending on the nature of the material, i.e. pristine material or cycled and ‘charged’ (from a charged cell) material ; and allow us to have a better overview through a real comparison of the exothermic reaction on positive electrode material.

The electrical abuse tests (using Accelerating Rate Calorimeter – ARC or Battery Test calorimeter – BTC) performed on forty ‘0.5Ah’ cells (10 per each technology) have not led to strong thermal runaway or fire and all the selected technologies could be kept to be tested at the large cell level (40Ah).

Considering the whole abuse tests performed on 40 Ah large cells (60 / 76 abuse tests performed), that can be divided into different main categories: thermal, mechanical and electrical tests:no technology have a satisfactory behaviour.

WP7  Economical Assessment

The cost of active materials and cell components have been evaluated by suppliers. We used the tool BatPac developed by  Argonne to estimate of the cell cost.

To determine the annual quantities of each component , we based on the mass decomposition given by Saft according the recipe they used to manufacture, NMC/C, LMO-NCA/C, NCA/C, LFP/C cells but all the cells have not the same capacity (28-41 Ah) due to process or optimization difficulties.

We can notice that LMO-NCA/C, NMC/C and NCA/C prices decrease of 10 % between 50 000 to 200 000 packs, due a volume effect, and 15% decrease for LFP technology.

WP8  Recycling Feasibility

The Objectives of WP8 are to identify potential recycling processes guided by their technical feasibility and respective possible output products, to validate experimentally and to estimate the environmental impact and costs of the selected recycling concepts for each technology studied (LFP, NMC, LMO – blend and NCA / Graphite).

Four potential recycling concepts were identified related to achievable recycling efficiency, productivity, environmental impact, costs and market needs.

Recycling trials have been conducted to validate experimentally the recycling efficiency and the chemical composition of the recycling products. A risk analysis has been performed in respect to safety issues of potential recycling processes. 


Although the test work, cost/recycling  assessment and the attendant results analysis have yet to complete, the project is already showing significant information on the differences between the 4 cell technologies. This will provide considerable assistance to future R&D and business decision for :

- vehicle OEM's

- cell, battery and control / instrumentation/ safety equipment developers and manufacturers

- research organisations and test institutes

In addition, the procedure and methodology developed during the project could be used for similar evaluation processes.


LNMob_Paper_ HELIOS_EV battery workshop 10 april 2013

Capacity Decrease vs Impedance Increase of Lithium Batteries (AIT)- A comparative study

 NonlinearImpedanceNormal_iwis 2012

Renault is a multi-brand automotive group, which has acquired international reach through its Alliance with Nissan, take-over of the Romanian manufacturer Dacia and setting up of the Korean company, Renault Samsung Motors. With Renault Commitment 2009, the ambition for the group is to make and sustain Renault as the most profitable European volume car company.

A group with industrial and commercial presence in 118 countries, Renault designs, develops, manufactures and sells innovative, safe and environmentally-friendly vehicles worldwide.
Its 122,000 employees contribute to a strategy of profitable growth based on three key factors: competitiveness, innovation and international expansion.
Renault’s target is to be the most profitable of European generalist automotive company. The Group is accelerating its international development with the new Logan and pursuing the Alliance with Nissan.

At the end of 2007 and throughout 2008 the Renault-Nissan Alliance has announced a strategy of massive deployment of electric vehicles using Li-ion batteries. Up to now more than 40 partnership agreements have been signed worldwide with private companies and local public authorities. The Alliance aim to have the leadership in ZEV mass diffusion.

The Group's activities are organized in two main Divisions:

  • Automobile Division:
    Alongside Renault, this Division includes the brands Samsung and Dacia. The Automobile Division designs, develops and markets passenger cars and light commercial vehicles.


  • Sales Financing Division: 
    This Division contributes to Renault's sales and marketing activities. It includes RCI Banque and its subsidiaries, making a total of some 60 companies underpinning the Group's international development. 







Total turnover (millions of EUR)

33 712

38 971

Renault group production worldwide ( Cars + LCVs) – units 

2 181 746

2 598 597

Renault group sales worldwide (Cars + LCVs) – units

2 309 188

2 625 796

Renault group workforce

121 422

122 615



        Adam Opel AG and GM Europe



Opel is developing, producing and selling passenger cars since 1899. Since 1929, Opel is part of General Motors (GM). In Europe, GM sells its vehicles in over 30 markets. It operates 10 vehicle-production and assembly facilities in seven countries and employs around 55,500 people. Many additional directly related jobs are provided by some 8,900 independent sales and service outlets.

 GM Europe in numbers (2007):

Revenue                                                    $37.4 bn

Earnings (before tax)                                  $55 m

Workforce                                                  55,500

Vehicles sold                                               2,181,502

 The legal entity participating in this project is Adam Opel GmbH and its brand Opel is contributing to more than 75% of the GME market share in Europe.

European market share by brand:                       

Total GM                                                     9.5 %

Opel/Vauxhall                                              7.1 %

Chevrolet                                                    2.0 %

Saab                                                           0.4 %

 Electric propulsion strategy

GM and Opel are committed to energy diversity and are pursuing energy diversity on many fronts. For a global carmaker, it is clear that petroleum alone cannot fuel all of the world’s rapidly growing demand for enhanced personal mobility. Development of alternative sources of propulsion, using a variety of energy sources, is a must.

GM and Opel strongly believe in the electrification of the automobile and, eventually, a combination with fuel-cell propulsion systems. To bridge the way there, vehicle technologies are developed to leverage a number of different pathways combined with varying degrees of electrification, that enable to drive down emissions, reduce dependence on foreign energy sources and lower transport related CO2 emissions on a source-to-wheels basis.

Project Driveway, the world’s largest fuel-cell fleet test, is furthering the development of this promising technology with more than 100 fuel-cell electric vehicles on three continents including Europe.

Adam Opel GmbH contributes to GM’s strategy for energy diversity and is working on battery electric vehicles and batteries since nearly 20 years. The most recent activity is the development of battery systems for Plug-In and Range Extended Electric Vehicles, such as the Chevrolet Volt.

Experience on batteries, electric vehicles and driving profiles was also gained during the participation in several EU founded research and demonstration projects. The research projects SAVALI, ASTOR and LIBERAL were the most recent battery related projects, while the Thermie project was a demonstration project for electric vehicles.

Due to this extensive experience, Opel agreed to coordinate the work package 3 – definition of battery specification and test profiles. Furthermore, Opel will contribute to the definition of the high-energy battery cells and the definition of the performance and life cycle test procedures as well as the safety test procedures.



PSA PEUGEOT CITROËN was created when the PEUGEOT brand bought the CITROËN brand in 1976, and later on in 1978 the Chrysler Europe brand. PSA PEUGEOT CITROËN brings together two strong and distinctive brands, each with its own identity, its own vehicle portfolio and commercial marketing.

In 2006, the PSA group has sold 3.36 millions vehicles worldwide, and a market share of 5.2%. The PSA group is the 2nd European car manufacturer; and has shown growth outside Europe, mainly in Mercosur and Asia, with over 1 million vehicles sold, representing 32% of its world sales. The 2006 revenue was over 56.5 billions Euros; with an operating margin over 1.1 billion Euros.

The PSA group includes also the following companies:

  • FAURECIA, 2nd European parts manufacturer, and one of the worldwide leaders in its 6 core businesses,
  • GEFCO, 2nd logistics company in France,
  • Banque PSA finance, regrouping the financing businesses of the PSA group,
  • Peugeot Motocycles (PMTC) develops and manufactures bikes and scooters,
  • PEUGEOT CITROËN Moteurs (PCM) sells engines and components made by the PSA group to external customers for industrial and automotive applications.

PSA PEUGEOT CITROËN employs 211 750 persons worldwide, with ca. 122 000 in France.

 PSA Peugeot Citroën is second European car manufacturer with a market share of  14%  in  2007  and  PSA  is  first, concerning light utility vehicles (18,8%). PSA Peugeot Citroën sold 3.428 000 Vehicles in 2007 in the world. PSA Peugeot Citroën has innovation projects in numerous fields, especially in two topics: environment and safety. Concerning environment and CO2
emissions reductions:

- PSA Peugeot Citroën is the first car manufacturer in the world considering the sale of low consumption vehicles. For the second consecutive year, the Group sold in 2007 in Europe 1 million of vehicles emitting less than 140 grams of C02 per km, among which 750 000 emitting less than 130 grams. The Group notably demonstrates its technological advance with the diesel direct injection HDi and the particles filter, launched in 1st world in 2000 or still Stop and Start.

- PSA Peugeot Citroën estimates all the solutions allowing to reduce the consumption like hybrid vehicles (micro and full), electric vehicle or in longer term, vehicles endowed with fuel cell (FCV).

 Volvo is a world leading manufacturer of commercial vehicles (buses, trucks, construction equipment, marine and aerospace applications).  The number of employees is about 100.000 worldwide with main bases in Europe, US and Asia. 

Within the Volvo Group Volvo Powertrain is responsible for diesel engines, transmissions, hybrid components and shafts solutions for the companies within the Volvo Group, and delivers powertrain solutions to buses, trucks, marine and construction equipment applications for the brands Volvo, Renault, Mack and Nissan Diesel. 

The Volvo Group has a turn-over of > 300 BSEK and delivers >300.000 heavy-duty trucks per year. The Volvo Group will introduce hybrid-electric vehicles for city applications, such as buses and refuse trucks, during 2009.

Ford Research & Advanced Engineering Europe

The defining mission of Ford Research and Advanced Engineering Europe is creating individual mobility solutions that go hand in hand with environmental and safety considerations. Most of the R&A team is located in the Ford Research Centre in Aachen which was founded in 1994 and is the only Ford Motor Company research location in the world outside of Detroit. Its workforce has grown to about 250 employees from over 25 nations around the globe. Environment and sustainability research is being done in areas as diverse as next generation diesel and gasoline engine development, environmental science, alternative powertrains, telematics and new materials research. Safety and health aspects are being addressed in the areas of vehicle dynamics, active safety systems, and vehicle interior concepts.


 Centro Ricerche FIAT S.C.p.A. (CRF) was established in 1976 to enable the innovation, research and development needs of the FIAT Group to be satisfied. The main site of CRF is located near Torino (Orbassano) in North-West Italy with three branches in Trento, Bari and Foggia. Moreover, advanced R&D related to lighting and the welding of plastics is conducted at a satellite facility in the Friuli Region of North-East Italy.

With a full-time workforce of more than 850 highly trained professionals, CRF offers a wide range of technical competencies and is equipped with state-of-the-art laboratories for the testing of powertrains, electro-magnetic compatibility, experimental noise and vibration analysis, driving simulation and virtual reality, in addition to facilities for the development of new materials and manufacturing processes, opto-electronics and micro-technologies.

CRF uses innovation as strategic lever and attributes value to its results by promoting, developing and transferring innovation in order to enhance product competitiveness and distinctiveness. Furthermore, the development of effective, creative and competitive solutions is matched by direct technology transfer that also includes “on the job” training of specialised personnel in the different areas.

In this way, CRF provides vital technological support for growth to Fiat Group, its partners and different regions by conducting research and development activities, frequently related to improving the efficiency and safety of mobility and transportation by focusing on the development of vehicles with new architectures and powertrains, innovative materials and advanced solutions for telematics and communications, mechatronics and optics.


Moreover, through many years of pre-competitive research within European and international research projects, a collaboration network with more than 750 industrial partners and 150 Universities all around the world has been established.

The principal characteristics of CRF include:

  • integrated competences for the development of products and processes
  • more than 760 inventions generating roughly 2000 patents
  • advanced development methodologies for time and cost reduction
  • strong emphasis on the transfer of results
  • more than 400 innovative products, processes and methodologies released each year
  • training “on the job” of people in different technology areas
  • high level equipment, laboratories and test facilities
  • consultancy on high risk technologies
  • innovative engineering applied to the development of new products


The Laboratory of Reactivity and Solid State Chemistry (LRCS), part of the University of Picardie Jules Verne (UPJV), was created in 1968 and became part of the CNRS in 1986. It consists of 51 researchers, of whom 27 are permanent and the remainder PhD students and postdocs. The LRCS is a key lab in the development of new materials for Li-ion battery.

 The LRCS with its dual approach involving chemistry-electrochemistry has special expertise in the design/development of tailored materials for batteries and electrochromic devices as well as in interfaces characterization through in situ electron microscopy and diffraction techniques. We have special skills in the preparation of tailored made materials and/or nano-structured electrodes. The surprising discovery, that transition-metal oxides could react reversibly with Li through a new mechanism based on the nano-particular character of the material, is a simple illustration of the constant desire amongst LRCS researchers to stray from well established paths.

Among the activities of the LRCS, we are now developing models that can take into account the aging of Li-Ion batteries together with expertise in post mortem analysis. Both expertises will be useful to select the suitable chemical system that will meet the car maker demand.



     Uppsala University, founded in 1477, is the oldest University in the Nordic countries. Today, it trains more than 40 000 students, and employs 5000 people, of whom 2000 are researchers and teachers. There are about 2500 active graduate students, 44% of these are women. Each year, the University awards some 270 doctoral degrees.

    The Ångström Advanced Battery Centre is an integral part of the Materials Chemistry Department of Uppsala University; it is housed within the Ångstrom Laboratory – one of Europe’s best equipped Materials Research Laboratories. The Centre involves the full-time activities of 15-20 researchers, of whom three are Senior Staff; the remainders are PhD students and postdocs. It is today seen as one of Europe’s research environments for the development of electrochemical storage materials and advanced battery technology; we publish ca 20 papers per year in international journals.


Role in the proposed project

  • Atomic-level characterisation of the electrode/electrolyte interfaces of Li-ion batteries tested for HEV-applications using in-house and synchrotron based Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES).


Previous experience relevant to the tasks

     The Group was involved in one of the earliest Li-ion battery related projects: a DARPA-funded Euro-American project to produce a Li-polymer battery. We have participated in a number of EC projects over the last 20 years – the earliest within the Joule II Program – and are part of the on-going EU-FP6 Network of Excellence “ALISTORE”. We also coordinate the advanced Li-ion battery project SVEN-SLO-BATT within the ERA-Net framework. We were recently awarded a much-coveted Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP) grant from Stanford to develop cathodes for large-scale EV/HEV applications.

     Our prime research interests lie in developing novel Li-ion (polymer) battery concepts and to perform lifetime studies and material stability test in batteries for HEV and plug-in vehicles. These activities include:

  • Controlled generation and characterization of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) layer on anode and cathode materials in different electrolyte formulations.
  • Durability studies of electrode materials as a function of state of charge, temperature and battery cycling.
  • In situstudies of battery process in real-time vs. cell performance.


RWTH Aachen University is the largest university of technology in Germany and one of the most renowned in Europe. It currently has around 28,000 enrolled students, most of them in engineering. Every year, numerous international students and scientists come to the University to benefit from its high quality courses and excellent facilities, both of which are recognised at an international level.

 RWTHAachen Universityis receiving funding for all three funding lines within the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments. With this funding, the RWTH is provided a unique and valuable opportunity to substantially sharpen its scientific profile within just a few years and to orient it towards its core competences in order to conduct top-level research and improve its international visibility. To reach this goal, RWTH Aachen University has developed a strategic plan which is reflected in the Institutional Strategy and leads to a superordinate goal: In contrast to a university which is characterised primarily by the coexistence of individual strengths, especially in engineering, the RWTH will now develop into an integrated interdisciplinary university of technology that is able to meet global challenges.

 The two institutes IME and ISEA of RWTH Aachen University are taking part in the project.

“Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling” (IME)

The IME represents the field of process metallurgy and metal recycling in research and training at RWTH Aachen University. Its main aim is a qualification of process engineers that is related to practice and a development of effective environmentally sound and cost-effective processes for producing metallic basic material. The IME is one of the primary institutes of the RWTH Aachen University and celebrated its 100th birthday in 1998. It is part of the division “Metallurgy and Materials Technology” inside the faculty of “Georesources and Materials Engineering”. This forms an ideal framework for contributing to the optimisation of process chains of a global network. On the basis of ore, as the georesource (ore), and scrap, as the consumption resource, modern functional materials are provided. Since Prof. Bernd Friedrich has taken over the charge in 1999 the process technology of developing and optimizing the processes of complex high-capacity metals plays an important role. Based on application-oriented elementary work the IME aims at experimentally testing newly developed processes up to technical scales. Related to the demands of the industry this development always takes into consideration the aspects of environmental protection and economic efficiency. Beyond the research and development work the institute offers for all fields of works expert advice and services to companies and public authorities. Due to the national and international acknowledgement, the projects cover the complete range of metallurgy and metal working focussing on the fields of light and refractory metals. Beside the director of the institute and chief engineer Dr. Reinhard Fuchs the institute employs more than 20 scientific assistants and 20 employees in the technical and administrative sector on an area of more than 2.000 m2. Furthermore, nine trainees are qualified as industrial mechanics, chemical and physics laboratory assistants and administration employees. 20 % of the employees of the IME are financed by funds of the state and 80 % of the employees are paid by third-party funds coming from the state Northrhine-Westphalia, the Federation, the European Union and other supporting institutions e.g. BMBF, AiF, DFG, GTZ, and, as a matter of course, directly from the industry.

 IMEcontribution within WP8 and previous experience

The IME has strong know how in battery recycling metallurgy especially zinc-carbon, alkaline, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metalhydride and Li-Ion. The technology used range from vacuum distillation, arc metallurgy to hydrometallurgy. Many Ph.D. theses and industrial projects were finalized in the battery recycling field since 1999. The research works IME will contribute to WP8 will be theoretical investigations as well as experimental test works:

•           Design of a potential recycling process

•           Forecast of product compositions for the potential recycling processes

•           Experimental recycling tests (process development)

•           Consideration of full battery pack recycling

•           coordination of all work conducted in WP8

Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA)

The Electrochimal Energy conversion and storage Systems Group has great competences in :

  • Energy & battery management
  • Thermal, electrical & physico-chemical models
  • Optimisation of charging and refresh strategies for batteries
  • Impedance spectroscopy for diagnosis and characterisation
  • Characterisation and ageing tests
  • Sensors & measurement devices for batteries & fuel cells
  • Lead acid, Li-ion, Ni MH, NiCd, supercapacitors…
  • Chemical laboratory
  • Electrical test equipment for batteries and supercapacitors

More Informations



 Umicore is a materials technology group.

Its activities are centred on four business areas: Advanced Materials, Precious Metals Products and Catalysts, Precious Metals Services and Zinc Specialties. Each business area is divided into market-focused business units. Our target of sustainable value creation is based on our ambition to develop, produce and recycle materials and offer material solutions, in line with our mission: Materials for a Better Life.

The Umicore Group has industrial operations on all continents and serves a global customer base; it generated a turnover of EUR 8.3 billion (€1.9 billion excluding metal) in 2007 and currently employs some 14,800 people.

Umicore is one of the top market leaders in advanced products for rechargeable batteries, derived from Nickel and Cobalt in particular.

We serve our customers with key materials for the three generations of rechargeable batteries (Li-ion, Li-Polymer and NiMH). In this regard, Umicore is also able to close the loop: end-of-life Li-ion, Li-polymer and NiMH batteries can be recycled using our Val’Eas process – technology developed in-house. This recycling concept is a part of the company philosophy: doing so, we decrease the (uncontrolled) deposit of metals in nature, we prevent depletion of natural resources and we reduce the eco-footprint of the batteries.

Umicore has more than a hundred years of experience in metallurgy. By combining a unique pyrometallurgical treatment and a state-of-the-art hydrometallurgical process, we can recycle all kinds of rechargeable batteries found in portable electronic devices (mobile phones, laptops, pda’s…) and industrial applications (electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles…) of today. The Umicore process won the Gold Award of the European Environmental Press, a jury composed of industrial and technical specialists in Environment and Eco-efficiency. They have concluded that the Umicore process is today the Best Available Technology for the recycling of portable and/or industrial batteries. However, as new battery chemistries will be developed for (H)EV purposes, this will need new recycling routes. Evaluation of recycling flow sheets designed ‘on paper’, lab scale tests and pilot upscaling are required, as well as economic assessment of the processes and the end products.


 INERIS is a public industrial and commercial establishment (known as EPIC in France) under the supervision of the French Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Planning and Development.

The main activities  are research, support to public authorities, regulatory expertise, consulting, and training. Research carried out at INERIS is aimed at better understanding dangerous phenomena and their consequences, providing public authorities with an independent scientific perspective on strategic issues, conceiving new methodologies and operational tools for risk assessment, and assuring surveillance and warning role to identify and anticipate emerging risks.

In 2007, the staff numbered 555 people including more than 300 engineers, research scientists and managers and 45 PhD students.

INERIS combines an experimental approach with modelling, risk methodology, and feedback from experience. It is equipped with physical and chemical analysis laboratories and small to full-scale test facilities.

Concerning the calorimetry laboratory, INERIS has more than 20 years of experience in characterising products (including metal hydrides) and chemical reactions in a variety of calorimeters (7). Tools available are designed to characterise both components at laboratory scale and full size objects on specific areas.

Concerning energy systems, INERIS has been committed to carrying out research for several years now with regard to accidental hazards. In particular, research has been carried out in the analysis of the behaviour of batteries in accidental conditions, especially in fire conditions.

INERIS takes part in the work of BatteryNanoSafe in collaboration with LRCS. The goal of this project is to assess the safety of Li-ion battery containing nanocomponents.

In 2010, the CERTES (European centre of research on technology of environment and security) will increase the INERIS facilities in term of large scale tests and create a real. A “Safety battery platform” will enable scientists and industrialists to evaluate batteries hazards under normal or abuse conditions.



 ZSW (Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg/ Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research Baden-Württemberg) department “New Energy Technologies” in Ulm has a strong expertise in the area of energy conversion and energy storage. We are performing application oriented R&D in close cooperation with industrial partners. Our knowledge base includes among others material development, production technologies, application systems as well as modelling and testing of advanced batteries, super capacitors and fuel cells. Key issues of developments are increased lifetime, safety, and cost reduction

Unique Features

  • development of advanced active battery materials (cathode, anode, electrolyte) to improve safety, lifetime, performance and cost
  • development of new manufacturing technologies and prototype manufacturing of li-cells with new chemistry
  • New batteries for new energy storage systems for hybrid and full electric vehicles with increased lifetime, highly safety, and cost reduced


ZSW general presentation (pdf file)


ZSW Laboratory for Battery Technology (eLaB)

Lise-Meitner-Str. 24

89081 Ulm – GERMANY

Tel.: +49 (0)731 95 30-500









 The EDF Group, one of the leaders in the energy market in Europe, is an integrated energy company active in all the businesses: production, transport, distribution, energy selling and trading. The Group is the leading electricity producer in Europe. 

In France, it has mainly nuclear and hydraulic production facilities where 95% of the electricity output involves no CO2 emissions. EDF operates 1,200,000 km of low and medium voltage overhead and underground electricity lines and around 100,000 km of high and very high voltage networks. The Group is involved in supplying energy and services to more than 40 million customers around the world, including more than 28 million in France. The Group generated consolidated sales of € 58.9 billion (of which 42% in Europe excluding France) and net income from ordinary operations of € 4.2 billion in 2006. EDF is listed on the Paris Stock Exchange and is a member of the CAC 40 index

 Another main feature of the Group is its involvement on research in climate change and in the energy area like new generation technologies such as renewable energies and clean surface transports and their impact on the network, conventional technologies as nuclear, and the interaction between energy market and electric system constraint.

 EDF R&D : the aim of the EDF R&D Division is to keep electricity costs competitive, prepare the generating facilities of the future, enhance the quality of supply while preserving the environment, as well as to develop innovative solutions with the customer in mind. The variety of these objectives has led EDF to set up a strong R&D function, including multidisciplinary knowledge, and with a balance between basic research and industrial applications.

Figures for EDF R&D activities in 2005:

- 1329 researchers of whom 27% women

-  96 teaching researchers, 55 PhD candidates       

- Participating in 53  FP6 projects (7coordinated by EDF)

- 4 main research sites : Clamart (France), Chatou (France), Les Renardières (France), Karlsruhe (Germany)


Johnson Controls Hybrid and Recycling GmbH (JCHaR)

Johnson Controls Hybrid and Recycling GmbH (JCHaR) in Hannover is the legal organization of Johnson Controls responsible for battery integration and battery testing in Europe. It has its origin in the Varta Automotive organization that was taken over by Johnson Controls in the year 2002. The Advanced Battery division of JCHaR is dealing with the development of battery systems for automotive applications as are used in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicles. Focus is on advanced Lithium-Ion systems, but also Nickel-Metal Hydride MH is still playing a certain role. JCHaR’s mother organization JCI  has partnered up with the French battery manufacturer SAFT in 2006 for a Joint Venture named Johnson Controls – SAFT. The JV is developing, producing and marketing advanced battery system for all vehicle applications on a world-wide base. Besides the technical work with battery integration and manufacturing,  the Hannover facility is also responsible for sales and marketing in Europe. It is also in charge of  European related legal aspects of advanced battery systems, their application and their distribution. Work on concepts for recollection of spent batteries and recycling is also involved in its activities 


AIT Austrian Institute of Technology – Profile

The AIT Austrian Institute of Technology is an Austrian research institute with a European format and focuses on the key infrastructure issues of the future.

The AIT, which comprises five independent and performance-driven departments (Energy, Mobility, Health & Environment, Safety & Security and Foresight & Policy Development), works in close collaboration with industry and customers from public institutions, striving to increase their added value through innovation and new technologies. The AIT Austrian Institute of Technology is a highly-specialized Research & Development partner focusing on key infrastructure issues of the future. It is geared towards developing the methods and technologies of tomorrow for the innovations of the day after tomorrow.

The AIT Austrian Institute of Technology, with facilities at Tech Gate Vienna (management headquarters), Tech Base Vienna (formerly arsenal research), Seibersdorf, Wr. Neustadt, Ranshofen and Leoben, is focused on applied research, innovation and technology.

Mobility Department – Profile

The AIT Mobility Department focuses on the development of safe, efficient and green mobility solutions. The unique feature is the holistic approach regarding the systemic contemplation of vehicle, transportation infrastructure and transportation system, which institutes new possibilities in the research environment: Methodically, an integrated and simulation-based approach is pursued which discloses optimisation potential through the usage of high-quality data in models and algorithms as well as enabling validation of simulations using highly sophisticated research infrastructure.


 CEA is a French government-funded technological research organisation. A prominent player in the European Research Area, it has activities on four main areas, Energy, Defence & security, Health & information technologies, Fundamental research. With about 20000 researchers and co-workers whose skills are internationally recognized, CEA offers an expertise and makes strategic propositions to the public institutions. CEA is present with 10 research centres located on all the French territory, allowing CEA to have a strong regional implication and strong partnerships with many companies and research organisations in France, and is also involved in many Europe collaborative projects. CEA took aware very early that to respond to the growing energy demand while reducing greenhouse gas emissions was going to become an international challenge. To meet this challenge, CEA has brought all its new energy technology (NET) initiatives together within the Laboratory for Innovation in New Energy Technologies and Nanomaterials (LITEN) based on the CEA centre of Grenoble. Within the LITEN, more than 800 researchers and co-workers work on future transport applications as hydrogen, fuel cells and batteries, on solar energy, on low-energy buildings as well as on nanomaterials for energy and methods guaranteeing their safe use. Researches on the storage of electricity are focused more particularly on the development of innovative batteries, on the improvement of the energy management and on the characterization and evaluation of electric storage system.

More information about the CEA on

CEA-INES Laboratory

To support the research on the thermal and photovoltaic solar energy, a centre of excellence bringing French expertise and resources in solar energy technologies together was created in Chambéry in Savoie, called INES: the French National Institute for Solar Energy. CEA is an active member of this Institut for its activities of Research, Development and Innovation (INES-RDI), with other research actors as CNRS, CSTB, University of Savoie, and companies as Clipsol, Photowatt, Total Energie, EDF EN, Renault, Arkema or Ferropem.

Figure 1: General overview of INES facilities

At INES, the CEA works thanks to some of the LITEN teams on numerous topics linked to solar and renewable energies:

  • solar thermal systems and  thermal storage,
  • building energy management,
  • purification and crystallisation of silicon,
  • silicon cells (silicon metal cells, silicon heterojunction cells) and organic photovoltaic cells,
  • photovoltaic modules and collaborations with the photovoltaic certification laboratory (Certisolis)
  • photovoltaic systems (power electronics, forecasting, grid design,…),
  • stand alone systems,
  • solar mobility,
  • and electrical storage systems (electrical vehicles, grid-connected systems, stand alone PV systems).

Gaining from 15 years of experience at CEA in assessing the performance and lifetime of storage systems according to the appropriate criteria for each application, the Laboratory for Electrical Storage (LSE), located at INES, is a reference centre on electrical storage in Europe. The LSE has to contribute to:

  • the better integration of renewable energies into the network,
  • the fast development of electric vehicles,
  • and the optimization of stand alone systems.

The LSE team has developed a large knowledge on these topics and covers a wide range of research activities. Testing most of the electrical storage technologies (Advanced lead acid batteries, Lithium-ion, NiMH, NiCd, Flow batteries, Na-NiCl2 ZEBRA batteries), the LSE performs the characterization, the evaluation and modelling of elements, cells, modules and packs towards life expectancy and towards the electrical and safety points of view. Post-mortem analysis and diagnostics are carried out to analyse the ageing, especially for the lead-acid batteries. Furthermore, the LSE designs new sensors and technologies for the electrical storage. Finally, by developing algorithms for charging and for estimating the SOC (state-of-charge), the SOH (state-of-health) or the SOE (state-of-energy), the LSE works on the energy management; these battery management systems target at ensuring the initial performance and during cycling, bringing information to users, adapting the use to the needs, and insuring more safety.

 The Laboratory for Electrical Storage is today composed by 17 engineers and technicians, 4 Ph.D students, 3 trainees, to evaluate and integrate all the storage technologies.

In order to meet the requirements of all the developing applications, the INES Energy Storage Platform is composed by four test rooms (800 m2) and a fire-proof room in accordance with the French ICPE directive. The electrical test benches are designed to perform electrical characterizations in accordance to international Standards or internal accelerated procedures; 150 test channels at a range of power levels from 10V-200A and up to 235kW are dedicated to different activities (characterization, cycling, lead-acid batteries, second life), 20 climatic chambers and 7 thermal pools permit to cycle at different temperatures from -40°C to 60°C, some ovens and cooled chambers allow storing batteries at the desired condition. Additional electrochemical analysis equipments are available including benches, potentiostats and impedance meters. For some years, safety evaluations of lithium-ion cells are also performed by using an adiabatic calorimeter (EV-ARC). This equipment allows qualifying the thermal sensitivity of cells and their thermal behaviour during overcharging and short-circuiting.

The contribution of the LSE in the HELIOS Project will concern more especially the electrical and safety evaluations of the different lithium-ion technologies and the ageing studies.

Figure  2. General overview of INES facilities and tests field.



Figure  3: Redox flow battery



Figure 4 : Thermal pools for cycling lead-acid batteries


Figure 5. Overview of some of the Laboratory for Electrical Storage (LSE) research activities


CEA-Liten LMB Laboratory

To support the research on the development of new materials for energy, the LITEN leans on the Laboratory of Battery Materials (LMB) and the Laboratory for Battery Prototyping and Design (LCPB), both based in Grenoble.

The LMB has a strong experience of 15 years within the development of innovative technologies dedicated to Li-Ion batteries and other electrochemical storage means. The know-how of the LMB is focused on the material synthesis for batteries and fuel cells from the laboratory scale to the pilot-scale production, and on the development of new lithium technologies of battery. The LMB has also developed a strong expertise in the diagnostic and evaluation of chemical and electrochemical technologies of storage trough 3 topics: post-mortem analysis, chemical and thermal modelling in order to study and to forecast the different aging mechanisms that could occur, and risk and security analysis of Li-Ion cells.

Hence, the activities of the LMB are mainly based on the first steps of the development of a battery (especially Li-Ion battery) or of an electrochemical storage. The LMB works upstream the LCPB as the LCPB focuses its research and development on the cell manufacturing (from 10mWh to 100Wh). A wide platform with a pilot assembly line is dedicated to this activity (mixing for electrode ink preparation, reverse-roll coating, calendaring, winding, electrolyte filling, electric and laser welding, heat-sealing).

The LMB is involved in numerous European and French projects and has strong industrial partnerships too. In the framework of the HELIOS project, the expertise of the LMB is used to select and to characterize new active materials of electrode and to develop these electrodes and high energy cell layouts in strong collaboration with the other partners involved within this task.

More information about the CEA on

More information about the LITEN on

More information about the INES on



 ENEA (National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) is a governmental scientific research and technology development organization with vast, internationally recognised experience in conducting advanced research programmes and implementing complex projects in the fields of research and innovation for the sustainable development and environment safeguard. ENEA covers a variety of fields of competence with approximately 3500 employees, most researchers and engineers operating in eleven research centres located across Italy. In the field of transport, many programs on batteries, fuel cells and advanced vehicles are underway, also in co-operation with industry, academic institutions and research organisations at national and international levels. Since mid-80’s ENEA is conducting R&D Programs on lithium technologies for mobile and consumer applications. ENEA is (or has been) involved in many national, European (among many: LIBERAL, ASTOR, HySys, SCOPE, ILLIBATT and ILHYPOS) and international Programs/Projects with focus on advanced Lithium batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells and hydrogen applications.

 Specific know-how of ENEA:

ENEA has a well established expertise in analysing and studying electrochemical devices (batteries and supercapacitors) for hybrid electric vehicle applications with and without fuel cells. Since mid-80’s ENEA has been carrying out research on materials and on complete Li cells, as well as has been acting since the beginning of 90’s as independent testing institute for electric vehicle batteries in EUCAR Projects.


ENEA can count on the most advanced facilities for material processing in anhydrous conditions including a low relative humidity (<0.2%) dry-room laboratory and complete set of analytical, electrochemical and chemical-physical techniques to support the synthesis and the characterization of cell components. For testing ENEA has one of the largest European integrated battery/supercapacitor test facility system with climatic chambers and battery cyclers.


The role of ENEA in the project is: (i) in WP2 electrochemical characterization of aged cells; (ii) in WP3 definition of the testing procedures; (iii) in WP4 chemical and electrochemical characterization of cell components and complete cells; and (iv) in WP5 execution of calendar life tests and EIS measurements on all lithium chemistries.

 SAFT SA is world leader in the design and manufacture of high-tech battery systems for industrial applications, providing businesses with energy solutions that are crucial and often invisible components of the systems they develop.

SAFT has developed a large variety of high performance solutions to meet specific requirements in the three main sectors of its activity. Rechargeable batteries: SAFT is the leading European manufacturer of cells, battery packs, special power assemblies.

Ni/Cd, NiMH and lithium based technologies are engineered to provide power to the full range of consumer and professional applications in the fields of portable and cordless communications, personal computing, power tools, emergency lighting, mobility: Industrial batteries: SAFT is the world leader in Ni/Cd batteries for industrial applications. In particular, SAFT has very strong or world leading positions in civilian and military aviation, railways or standby. SAFT is also the world leader for the commercialisation of Ni/Cd batteries for electric vehicles. NiMH and Li-ion batteries are also produced in particular in Bordeaux for various industrial applications. Specialty batteries: SAFT has strong positions in batteries for Space and Defence applications, with the commercialisation of specific electrochemical systems (Li-ion, high-pressure Ni/H2, AgO/Al, Ag/Zn), as well as in primary lithium cells. SAFT has a workforce of 3900 people around the world and is present in 18 countries. SAFT is equipped with different Li-Ion production lines, including the one in Bordeaux (F) that will be used for HELIOS.


SST.2008.1.1.2 Electric-hybrid powertrains


Starting date : kick off meeting (23rd November 2009)

Ending date : October 2013

Partners :

Beneficiary Number Beneficiary name Beneficiary short name Country
1 Renault SAS Renault FR
2 Adam Opel AG Opel DE
3 PSA Peugeot PSA FR
   4 Volvo Powertrain Volvo SE
5 Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH Ford DE
6 Centro Ricerche FIAT S.C.p.A. CRF IT
7 Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides LRCS FR
8 Uppsala University UU SE
9 RWTH Aachen University RWTH DE
10 Umicore N. V. Umicore BE
11 Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques INERIS FR
12 Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung ZSW DE
13 Electricité de France EDF FR
14 Johnson Controls Hybrid and Recycling GmbH JCHaR DE
15 Austrian Institute of Technology AIT AT
16 Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique CEA FR
17 National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA IT


Objectives of the project :

The reluctance of vehicle manufactures worldwide to extend such electric drive applications to the private customers depends partly on considerations on customer acceptance (limited range in the case of EV, long charging time after depletion of the battery, and cost), but also from the increased reliability and life span that private customers are entitled to expect.

The successful transfer to series production vehicles is a major turning-point in terms of reliability and control of the loss of performances. This quality control is now well established for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) cells based on Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) technology, and is under validation for HEV based on Lithium-ion technology.

If we consider the High Energy (HE) applications, the state of the art on HE battery technology is behind that of High Power (HP) cells for HEV, in terms of maturity and quality control. The difficulties of HE cells in achieving reliability, life and safety targets depends on intrinsic characteristics such as their higher internal surface, and on the higher energy contained in one cell. This project is thus focused on improving dramatically the cells life and safety, while accepting a slight degradation in performances, in terms of energy and power density.

Schedule :


obtained her industrial PhD in Electrochemistry at the Ecole Polytechnique, jointly with EDF (French national electric company), on Lithium Metal Polymer Batteries for EV applications. She was previously formed as a material scientist at the Ecole Polytechnique (France) and at the University of Milan (Italy).

Since 5 years, she works on "advanced electrical energy storage systems" at Renault's Research Department. Her fields of expertise include battery ageing modelling, technical evaluation and battery requirements for specific automotive applications. She was the representative for Renault in the “LIBERAL” EU project.

         Frédérique DEL CORSO – RENAULT

graduated from Ecole de Chimie de Paris (France) in 1993 and “Ecole des Pétroles et moteurs” (IFP’s school) in Rueil Malmaison (France) in 1994. She has been working in Renault for 12 years and 5 years in the Research & Development department, as project manager.

Horst Mettlach -  Adam Opel AG 

He graduated in electrical engineering from RWTH Aachen University and has been working in the field of electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and traction batteries for more than 12 years at Opel. He also has been the Opel representative in the EU funded projects “SAVALI”, “ASTOR” and “LIBERAL”.

Horst Mettlach

GM Alternative Propulsion Center Europe
IPC MK-01 D-65423
Rüsselsheim Germany
Tel.: +49 (0) 6142 7 75735
Fax: +49 (0) 6142 7 66151



Denis Porcellato – PSA

Denis Porcellato is manager of a team on Energy Storage since 8 years in the Research Department of PSA Peugeot Citroën. He has been working in the Battery sector since ten years and in the industry since 18 years.  He has been involved in the past in different European Programmes on Energy Storage, such as Astor and Liberal.

 Annika Carlsson, part of Volvo powertrain corporation


hanna Bryngelsson

 Armin Warm

 Michel Gosso

Mathieu Morcrette Director of the Laboratoire de Réactivité et Chimie des Solides.

CNRS Research Engineer in Material Science Responsible for the CNRS Lithium Ion battery prototype Unit.

Research interests: Development of new positive and negative electrodes for lithium and lithium ion batteries. Simulation of Li-Ion batteries for electrical vehicles

Degree : PhD from the University of Paris VI (France) in 1999 under direction of Jacques Perriere (Groupe de physique des Solides, University Paris VI-VII) and Philippe Barboux (Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, school polytechnique, palaiseau).

70 publications, 5 patents


Professor Kristina Edström’s lithium battery research lies within the area of synthesis, structure and function of novel nano-structured electrode materials as well as battery durability and safety issues. The development of methods for the in situ study of electrochemical interface reactions is currently one of her prime interests.

Ass. Professor Torbjörn Gustafssonhas 20 years experience in lithium battery research, focusing on synthesis, structure and function of novel cathode materials.

Ass. Professor Håkan Rensmohas 15 years of experience of surface physics using XPS and synchrotron based PES of energy related materials for Li-ion batteries as well as solar cell materials.

Jan Tytgat : PhD in Chemistry (analytical and inorganic) in1986, was manager in analytical lab between1987 & 1997. He was purchasing manager and Head of Purchasing between 1998 & 2007, then he has been General Manager of Umicore Recycling Solutions since 2008.

 Ghislain Binotto – Direction des risques accidentels, coordinator of WP6 activities

Simeon Boyanov

Dr. Harry Döring, ZSW

obtained his PhD at University of Technology Dresden in the Institute for Electro Chemistry: He also had been at the University of Tokyo where he gained experience on the field of Photo electrochemistry at semiconductor surfaces for CO2 reduction.

Since almost 20 years he works at Center for solar energy and hydrogen research Baden-Württemberg (ZSW) and is the leader of the battery group Accumulators. His main field of expertise includes Battery evaluation in electric performance, life time and safety for different technologies and for different applications



Dr. Harry Döring

Head of Department Accumulators

Zentrum für Sonnenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung
Baden-Württemberg (ZSW)

Helmholtzstraße 8

D-89081 Ulm


Phone: +49 (0)731 95 30 602


PhD in physical-chemistry in University of sciences Paris. 3 years in IBM as reasearch engineer in microelectronics. 7 years in CEAC-EXIDE in research for battery manufacturing and applications, coordinator of several European projects. Since 2002, research engineer at EDF R&D centre "Renardières" and charged to ccodinate serveral European such as Multibat. Since 2207, in charge of battery's technlological survey and coordinating activity on the Li battery testing laboratory.


Christian SARRAZIN


Dr. Uwe Köhler is in charge of the management of the JCS related activities in the HELIOS project. He holds a Ph.D in Solid State Physics. Since joining Varta Research and Development in 1985 he has been working in different management positions. In the Johnson Controls – Saft  organisation Uwe Köhler is serving as a director with global responsibilities for product safety / reliability and government affairs. His technical experience is covering various fields of electrochemical storage systems for different applications as industrial, automotive and portable systems.

Dr. Fiorentino Valerio Conte – AIT Research

Electrical engineer; in 2004 he received the Ph.D. degree from the University of Pisa, and since 2003 he is scientific employee at Austrian Institute of Technology. Dr. Conte has high experience in modelling, design and testing of energy storage systems, performance of battery tests for industrial applications. Since 2004 he was member of the Annex VII expert group (Hybrid Vehicles Information Exchange) of the IEA Implementing Agreement “Hybrid & Electric Vehicles”, involved in several research projects on electric and electric-hybrid vehicle concepts. Up to now he has more then 20 publications in that research field. Dr. Conte will be the Austrian Institute of Technology reference for Helios Project.


Hartmut Popp

The persons that are envisaged to work for the HELIOS project have good skills on the ageing and safety characterisations:

Dr. Sylvie GENIESis a project manager; she has a PhD in Electrochemistry. After having worked six years in an OEM company, she works at INES for about three years and has participated to the development of the safety activities.

For LCE :



Dr. Mario Conte is responsible for the overall management of the activities at ENEA. He achieved his degree in Nuclear Physics in 1978. Since 1986 is responsible of the ENEA R&D projects on advanced batteries and electric and hybrid vehicle technologies. He has been performing projects at national and international levels on batteries, supercapacitors, bench- and field-testing of batteries and vehicles. He is member of the Italian EV Association (CEI-CIVES) and Board member of the European EV Association (AVERE) and of standard setting bodies (CEI, IEC, CEN, ISO). Most of his activities have been summarized in tens of publications, reports and an international patent.

Dr. Fabrizio Alessandrini obtained his degree in Industrial Chemistry in 1980 in the field of lithium batteries, under the supervision of Prof. B. Scrosati. Until 1982 he collaborated with Prof. Scrosati at the Rome University. From 1982 up to now he was appointed as researcher at ENEA. He has been working on basic and applied research related to the study of materials and systems for fuel cells and electrochemical storage. Main topics studied are: lithium batteries, sodium-sulphur batteries, molten carbonate fuel cell, solid oxide fuel cells, polymer electrolytes, conductive ceramics and ionic liquids. He his author/co-author of over 25 publications in reviewed international scientific journals and four patents.

Dr. Giovanni Battista Appetecchi graduated in Industrial Chemistry at University of Rome in 1993 in the field of gel polymer electrolytes for lithium battery systems under the supervision of Prof. B. Scrosati. From 1993 to 1998 he had a graduated fellowship at the Chemical Department of University of Rome. From 1999 to 2002 he had a graduated fellowship at ENEA. Since 2003 he is appointed as researcher at ENEA. He has been working from 1992 on basic and applied research devoted to study and characterize electrolyte and electrode materials and systems for electrochemical energy storage. Main topics are: polymer and gel electrolytes; composite electrodes; ionic liquids; and lithium batteries. He is author/co-author of over 80 publications in “peer reviewed” international scientific journal and 2 international patents

 Dr Philippe Biensan : Leads the Li-ion unit group in SAFT Bordeaux. He has 18 years experience in Lithium-ion technology. Several papers and presentations on Li-ion. Participant in the name of SAFT in several EU contracts. He already coordinated  European contracts on Li-ion batteries and will be responsible for the overall management within .

Cédric Gousset: electrochemical engineer with 5 years experience at Saft at first in Ni/Cd then in Li-ion batteries within the Electrochemical development team of Li-ion Unit in Bordeaux. He is in charge of chemical development of Li-ion High Energy cells with activities around NCA, NMC and LiFePO4 based cells. He will be responsible for the technical management of the project.

The project starts with WP2 providing an updated review on ageing, which will be taken into account by WP3 when finalizing the test procedures. WP3 also will have to define the specifications of the cells for WP4 (manufacturing). The cells manufactured in WP4 will then be delivered to WP5 (electrical tests), WP6 (safety tests: including small cells for first feedback) and WP8 (recycling feasibility).

WP2 will receive the aged samples from WP5 for in-depth characterisation (post-mortem analysis), and the electrical tests intermediate and final report, for an overall interpretation of the ageing results.

WP7 will need input for the final battery pack cost assessment from WP8 (battery pack recycling cost) and WP6 (battery pack safety devices configuration).

WP2 : Ageing analysis and results interpretation

Task 2.1: Review on ageing and safety mechanisms.

The objective of this task is to make a review on the ageing mechanism with respect to the different electrode materials integrated into the batteries. We will focus this study not only on the intrinsic electrode property but also on the effect of impurities that can be present due to the difficulty of industrial synthesis. Moreover, we will investigate in detail the role of coating, mixing of the active material on the dissolution, cycling stability etc…

Task 2.2 : Post Mortem analysis on aged cells

Task 2.2.1 : Disassembly of the cells

Task 2.2.2 : Bulk characterisation of the active material

Task 2.2.3 : Surface characterisation of the active material

Task 2.2.4: Chemical evolution of electrolyte with ageing.

Task 2.3 : Interpretation of results

The objective is to determine the ageing mechanism and more importantly its origin. To identify the effect of the nature of the active material, its impurity contamination and electrode structure will be a very important benefit. Thus, we will have a feedback that should improve the durability of batteries built on these new chemistries. The objective of this task is to prepare a set of recommendations on the integration of new materials for vehicles applications in term of battery durability.

Task 2.4 : Preliminary and end-user oriented ageing model

Based on the literature analysis, the test bench results and the end-users requirements (i.e. OEMs) a preliminary model for describing the ageing within the cell will be developed

WP3 : Specifications and testing procedures

Task 3.1: Specifications of system targets & cell definition

Define one set of parameters (capacity, power, life) for HE cell that can be used in a battery system for EV and PHEV application for passenger cars and energy dense battery system for HEV heavy-duty trucks (in this application called HEV-APU).

Task 3.2: Definition of electrical characterization and cycling requirements

Task 3.3:  Definition of High Energy cells relevant safety test procedures

Comment: assumption of results on system level will be part of WP6.

Task 3.4: Coordination with ISO, VDA & USABC

WP4 : Manufacturing of HE cells

Task 4.1: Selection and characterisation of new active electrode materials

Task 4.1.1 Identification of interesting active electrode materials from various sources worldwide (3 Technologies)

Task 4.1.2 Determination of electrochemical, physical and chemical properties

Task 4.2: Development of electrodes and cell layout for high energy cells (geometry, cell match, passive components),  manufacturing of small sample cells (>0.5Ah) for pre-testing

Task 4.2.1 Formulation of mass recipes for the active material

Task 4.2.2 Characterisation of electrode material

Task 4.2.3 Building of small cells and pre-testing of new electrode materials

Task  4.3: Manufacturing  of  large cells (>40Ah)

Task 4.3.1 Adaptation of the new mass formulations to the technical needs of a pilot production and electrode manufacturing at pilot lines

Task 4.3.2. Assembling of big cells in the Bordeaux labs with four different electrochemical couples

WP5 : Electrical characterisation

Task 5.1: EV tests.

The objective of this task is to carry out electrical tests on the 4 HE Li ion technologies manufactured in WP4. Exact tests parameters have to be defined in WP3. Every 4  to 5 months one cell is removed for new electrical characterization and sent to WP2 for other analysis.

Task 5.2: PHEV tests.

The objective of this task is to make electrical tests on the 4 HE Li ion technologies manufactured in WP4. Exact tests parameters have to be defined in WP3. Each PHEV electrical test includes initial electrical characterisation of 3 individual cells by technology. After that, the 3 cells are connected in series and are cycled on test benches following PHEV procedure defined in WP3. Every 4  to 5 months one cell is removed for new electrical characterization and sent to WP2 for other analysis.

Task 5.3: Calendar life tests.

Task 5.4: In-situ diagnostics using impedance spectroscopy

WP6 : Safety tests

Task 6.1: Bibliographic review on runaway reaction mechanisms.

The objective is to make a review on the chemical runaway mechanism with respect to the different electrode materials integrated into the batteries and the behaviour under abuse test conditions in term of safety.

Task 6.2 : Test planning and Definition of testing protocols

Input from WP3 on safety tests procedures, and definition of a standard practical protocol to perform the tests. Definition of the supports for test results sharing. Organisation and planning of the tests.

Task 6.3 : Safety tests

Task 6.3.1 : Characterisation of active materials using calorimetric tools

Task 6.3.2 : Choice of technologies by using ARC tests

Task 6.3.3 : Safety tests on cell unit (40Ah)

Task 6.3.4 : Safety tests on multi-cell module (40Ah)

Task 6.5 : Interpretation of safety results

Task 6.6 : Extrapolation to pack level

Task 6.6.1 : Extrapolation on modules and/or pack level

Task 6.6.2 : Estimation of consequence of test result on pack concept

WP7 : Economical Assessment

Task 7.1 : Cost estimation for active material :

The objective of this task is to evaluate the cost (€/kg) versus quantity per year, of the different active materials in the scope of this project :

Task 7.2 : Cost estimation of Li-ion cells considering every electrochemistry, for EV, PHEV and HEV – APU applications :

The objective of this task is to evaluate the cost impact of the component inside the cell for EV, PHEV and HEV-APU applications versus quantity of cells per year, for each electrochemistry:

Task 7.3 : Cost estimation of battery packs considering every electrochemistry, for EV, PHEV and HEV – APU applications :

The objective of this task is to determine the impact that each of the different electrochemical systems will have on the cost level. This shall be done for a defined EV, PHEV and HEV-APU application versus quantity per year. Calculation of  the cost of  every pack will be taken into account

Input from WP 3 (3 packs specifications), Input from WP 6 (impact of cell safety on module/pack safety devices) and Input from WP  8 (recycling cost) 

WP8 Recycling Feasibility Assessment 

Task 8.1: Identification of the marketable output products and screening of the potential recycling processes

Task 8.2: Recycling tests on electrode materials and real cells

Task 8.3: Adaptation of the process to complete battery packs and basic environmental impact studies

Project Co-ordinators

Frédérique Del Corso

Research, Advanced Studies and Materials Division
1,av du Golf
Tel.: +33 (0)1 768 57 598

Horst Mettlach

GM Alternative Propulsion Center Europe
D-65423 Rüsselsheim
Tel.: +49 (0) 6142 7 75735
Fax: +49 (0) 6142 7 66151


Administrative & financial contact

Yuko Mathieu
API TCR AVA 1 77 1av du Golf
33 (0)1 76 85 68 92


Partner Organisation Name # Activity
Renault SAS 1 Original equipments manufacturer
Volvo 4 Original equipments manufacturer
Adam Opel AG 2 Original equipments manufacturer
PCA 3 Original equipments manufacturer
Ford 5

Original equipments manufacturer

Fiat – CRF 6 Original equipments manufacturer
RWTH 9 Engineering Co.
Uppsala Universitet 8 University
LRCS – CNRS 7 Research Institute
UMICORE 10 Engineering Co.
INERIS 11 Engineering Co.
ZSW 12 Engineering Co.
Johnson Controls 14 Engineering Co.
EDF 13 Engineering Co.
CEA 16 Research Institute
ENEA 17 Components manufacturer
AIT 15 University
SAFT 18 Components manufacturer